Theistic Hypothesis in Estephan Hawking, Mulla Sadra, Avicenna and Keith Ward’s Argument

Document Type : Research Paper




Modern scientific cosmology, having grounded itself in materialism, rebuts any theocentric explanation of the world as unnecessary and irrational. Stephan Hawking, being a prominent figure in this field, seeks to demonstrate that the world has come to existence by chance or necessity through an antitheistic argument based on Big Bang Theory. Regarding the metaphysical dimensions of the discourse, this essay is an effort to redemonstrate the tenability of the idea of a divine existence by the refutation of Hawking’s argument upon the philosophical principles of Avicenna, Mulla Sadra, and Keith Ward. In this regard, the ontology of transcendent theosophy based on such principles as the principality of existence, existential gradation, relative existence, and illuminative attribution not only does not find the existence of God inconsistent with such scientific theories as big Bang, but it also proves dynamic relationship between God and world. Thus it becomes clear that Avicenna's philosophical system and transcendent theosophy can confront the new challenges of theism. The purpose of this study is to address the new challenges in cosmology and theism according to philosophical systems of Avicenna and especially Mulla sadra and their dynamicity, and comparing them with Keith Ward’s philosophy.