Act of God in the World from the Viewpoint of Barbour

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Holder in Philosophy of Religion; Farabi Campus, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Farabi Campus, University of Tehran, Qom, Iran


The article at hand aims at conducting an analytical investigation of Barbour's process-based viewpoint toward act of God in the world. Following the contemporary scientific viewpoints, Ian Barbour believes that the natural world is run by natural laws. However, he believes in the act of God in the natural world, too, since he is of the belief that these two happen at two different levels. The natural laws express the effects of the physical variables of a phenomenon, while the act of God represents the effectiveness of God from within. In the world depicted by Barbour, natural variables and human volition bring about the future of the world, and even God does not know about the future of the world. Act of God in the world is limited to offering suggestions and introducing facilities to the creatures. In fact, God is represented as a variable in line with other variables. However, such a God is so weak and needy, and is not worthy of being worshipped.


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