The Evolution of Hindu Theism

Document Type : Research Paper


Associate Professor, Department of Comparative Religion and Mysticism, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Themain subject of this article is the investigation of the evolution of Hindu theism. The article has first examined theism among the Indo-European tribes and then has studied various theistic orientations (such as nature worship, polytheism, henotheism, monotheism, and monism) in Vedas as Aryan’ oldest written works. The Upanishad theology with its monotheistic theme and the concept of God in Gita in the three viewpoints present in it are the next discussions of the article. The stance taken toward God in Darśanas (the Hindu schools of thought), especially in the two schools of Vedanta and Nyaya that pay a special attention to divinity are the last issues discussed in this paper. All in all, it seems that despite its various experiences with theistic perspectives in the different stages of its history, the Hindu thinking has never settled conclusively and comprehensively in any of these perspectives.  


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