The Examination and Critisim of Types of Atheism from the Veiwpoint of John Gray

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of the Department of Islamic education and training. Farhangian Univercity. Kermanshah. Iran

2 Visiting Professor of the Department of Islamic Education and training. Farhangian Univercity. Kermanshah. Iran


John Gray, who is an English  philosopher and specialist in the history of theories, proposes different types of atheism and tries to define, categorize and criticize them by extracting the presuppositions and logical consequences  of each one. New atheism, atheism based on secular humanism, atheism as making a kind of religion out of science, atheism in the form of antitheism, atheism in the form of modern political schools, atheism without progress, and atheism of silence are types of atheism are the varieties of atheism that John Gray distinguishes from each other. According to John Gray, some types of atheism have gone astray by misunderstanding the definition of religion and considering it as the primary type of science. Some others, by taking presuppositions such as the idea of humanity and the idea of progress, have suffered a kind of logical contradiction in their accepted principles; Because while denying the truth of religions, they have taken these two assumptions from the idea of monotheism and the idea of salvation in religions.The impossibility of establishing moral.


Main Subjects

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