Document Type : Research Paper
Professor of The University of Tehran
student of university of religions and denominations and researcher, center for research on religions and denominations
Reason in Mu`tazila`s of basreh is explained by interpretations like knowledge, prohibition, thought, opinion, way to achieve knowledge, and apprehension of religious duties. They were the first group of Sunnis that benefited from speculative reason in cognition of religion; and argued for good and evil of deeds through practical reason, and rejected vile action of Allah, they also argued for doing the religious obligation. In Emameh`s of Baghdad School, Sheikh Mofid and SeyyedMorteza, have attributed the reason to a faculty which demands for differentiation; and reason has been described as collection of sciences by Sheikh Tousi. In this school the function of reason, practical and speculative, are accepted.
Concerning the relationship between reason and Revelation, Sheikh Mofid like speakers of Kufa School and contrary to Mu`tazila , believes that reason needs Revelation while SeyyedMorteza and Sheikh Tousi do not accept such need and attachment. Both Mu`tazili and Baghdad School have not presented any argument over sacred authority as if it is supposed to be an axiom, and practically, reason is used as a source as well as an instrument.