Michael Almeida's Explanation of the Unanswered Version of the Logical Problem of Evil in Free Will Defense

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Imamiyya Theology, Faculty of Theology, University of Tehran College of Farabi, Qom, Iran

2 Department of Philosophy and Theology, Faculty of Theology , University of Tehran College of Farabi,Qom ,Iran

3 Departemnt of Philosophy, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Theology ,Research Institute of Hikmat and Phiosophy of Tehran. Tehran.Iran


One of the most prominent and compelling philosophical responses to the logical problem of evil is Alvin Plantinga's free will defense. However, Michael Almeida, a critic of this defense, argues that while the free will defense has effectively addressed many versions of the logical problem of evil, there are versions, such as those presented by John Mackey, which can be referred to as the logical problem of evil redux. Almeida, who shares Plantinga's beliefs as a theist and incompatibilist, specifically focuses his critique on one of the most controversial assumptions underlying this defense: the notion of universal transworld depravity, which Plantinga claims is an inherent characteristic of all creatures. According to Almeida, this assumption is untenable because absolute divine foreknowledge, influenced by a perspective akin to Molinism, enables God to actualize a morally perfect world without conflicting with human free will. Almeida believes that we can address this problem and defend the existence of God, but it is not the aim of this article to present his solution


Main Subjects

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